Biografia de John Wayne

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Dados Pessoais

Nome: Marion Michael Morrison
Nascimento e local: 26/05/1907, Winterset, IA
Morte e local: 11/06/1979, Los Angeles, CA, câncer
Ocupação: ator
Nacionalidade: americano
Casamentos: Josephine Alicia Saenz, Esperanza Baur, Pilar Wayne
Filhos: Michael Wayne, Patrick Wayne, Toni Wayne, Melinda Wayne, Aissa Wayne, John Ethan Wayne, Marisa Wayne

Biografia

Marion Michael Morrison nasceu em 26 de maio de 1907. Como detestava seu nome, mudou assim que entrou para o cinema. Com 1,92 m de altura e campeão de futebol, pela University of Southern California, começou a se destacar no cinema em “A grande jornada” (1930), estrelando diversos filmes tipo B até se consagrar no papel de Ringo Kid no clássico “Nos tempos das Diligências” (1939).

A carreira de Wayne foi assim agraciada com esse divisor de águas inestimável que o lançou ao estrelato. Esse filme se tornou a obra que definirá todas as principais características do cinema de faroeste clássico norte-americano. A parceria entre Wayne e Ford continuou e realizaram juntos ainda uma série de grandes sucessos e filmes inesquecíveis (foram 22 no total), como “Rio Grande” (1950), “Depois do Vendaval” (1952), “Rastros de Ódio” (1956), “O Homem Que Matou o Facínora” (1962), “Sangue de Herói”, “Legião Invencível” e “Rio Grande” – trilogia sobre a Cavalaria -; “O céu mandou alguém”, “Asas de Águia”, “Marcha de Heróis”, entre outros.

Outro diretor renomado com quem trabalhou foi Howard Hawks, um dos maiores realizadores do período clássico hollywoodiano, com o qual fez vários dos maiores sucessos não apenas de suas carreiras, mas sim de todo o gênero do faroeste. Como bons exemplos temos: “Rio Vermelho” (1948), “El Dorado” (1967) e, o principal, e um dos mais irretocáveis exemplares do gênero, “Onde Começa o Inferno” (1959).

Além de John Ford e Howard Hawks, outros grandes diretores da época igualmente dirigiram Wayne. É o caso de Henry Hathaway, com o qual fez, entre outros, o filme que lhe concedeu o prêmio Oscar na categoria de melhor ator, “Bravura Indômita” (1969); Otto Preminger, que o dirigiu no ótimo drama de guerra “A Primeira Vitória” (1965); Don Siegel, com o qual fez seu último trabalho, “O Último Pistoleiro” (1976); Michael Curtiz, em “Os Comancheiros” (1961); e John Huston, com o qual trabalhou junto em “O Bárbaro e a Gueixa” (1958)
Além dos diretores já mencionados podemos citar: William Wellman, Mark Rydell e John Farrow. Havendo, também, trabalhado ao lado de vários astros de sua época: Henry Fonda, Katharine Hepburn, James Stewart, Maureen O’Hara, Sophia Loren, Elsa Martinelli, Kirk Douglas, William Holden, Marlene Dietrich, Rock Hudson, Robert Mitchum, Lee Marvin, Richard Widmark, dentre outros, em seus 50 anos de cinema.

Se casou três vezes. A primeira em 1932 com Josephine Saenz que lhe deu quatro filhos. Em 1946 o segundo casamento com a atriz mexicana Esperanza Baur, de quem se divorciou sete anos depois para se casar com Pilar Palette com quem teve mais dois filhos.

Dirigiu os filme “The Alamo” e “Os boina verdes”. Este último, de 1968, lhe causou grandes problemas. Tinha um roteiro pró-Guerra do Vietnã, o que causou a fúria dos opositores a essa intervenção militar estadunidense, que realizaram vários protestos contra a exibição do filme.

Fumante inveterado desde a juventude, Wayne foi diagnosticado em 1964 com câncer de pulmão, passando por uma cirurgia para remoção de todo o pulmão esquerdo e quatro costelas. Apesar dos esforços de seus agentes em evitar que ele tornasse a doença pública, o ator anunciou à imprensa que estava com câncer e fez um apelo para que a população fizesse mais exames preventivos. Cinco anos depois determinou-se que ele estava livre da doença, e apesar da diminuição da capacidade pulmonar, pouco depois Wayne voltou a mascar tabaco e a fumar.[2]

No final da década de 1970, Wayne envolveu-se como voluntário nos estudos de uma vacina para a cura do câncer, vindo a morrer em 11 de junho de 1979 em decorrência de um câncer de estômago.[2] Encontra-se sepultado em Pacific View Memorial Park, Corona del Mar, Condado de Orange, Califórnia nos Estados Unidos.

Filmografia

DIRETOR
1. The Green Berets (1968) as Director.
2. The Alamo (1960) as Director.

ATOR
3. 30, Still Single: Contemplating Suicide (1998)
4. Going Hollywood: The War Years (1983) as Himself (Archival Footage).
5. Chesty (1976) as Host.
6. It’s Showtime (1976)
7. The Shootist (1976) as J B Books.
8. Chesty (1976)
9. Brannigan (1975) as Detective Jim Brannigan.
10. Rooster Cogburn (1975) as Rooster Cogburn.
11. McQ (1974) as Mcq.
12. Cahill, U.S. Marshal (1973) as J D Cahill.
13. The Train Robbers (1973) as Lane.
14. Cancel My Reservation (1972) as .
15. The Cowboys (1972) as Wil Andersen .
16. Big Jake (1971) as Jacob McCandles .
17. Directed by John Ford (1971) as .
18. Chisum (1970) as John Chisum .
19. Rio Lobo (1970) as Col. Cord McNally .
20. The Undefeated (1969) as Col. John Henry Thomas .
21. True Grit (1969) as Rooster Cogburn .
22. Hellfighters (1968) as Chance Buckman .
23. The Green Berets (1968) as Col. Mike Kirby .
24. El Dorado (1967) as Cole Thornton .
25. The War Wagon (1967) as Taw Jackson .
26. Cast a Giant Shadow (1966) as Gen. Mike Randolph .
27. The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) as Centurion .
28. In Harm’s Way (1965) as Capt. Rockwell “Rock” Torrey .
29. The Sons of Katie Elder (1965) as John Elder .
30. Circus World (1964) as Matt Masters .
31. How the West Was Won (1963) as Gen. William T. Sherman .
32. Donovan’s Reef (1963) as Michael “Guns” Donovan .
33. McLintock! (1963) as George Washington McLintock .
34. Hatari! (1962) as Sean Mercer .
35. The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) as Tom Doniphon .
36. The Longest Day (1962) as Colonel Vandervoort .
37. The Comancheros (1961) as Jake Cutter .
38. The Alamo (1960) as Col. David Crockett .
39. North to Alaska (1960) as Sam McCord .
40. The Horse Soldiers (1959) as Col. John Marlowe .
41. Rio Bravo (1959) as Sheriff John T. Chance .
42. I Married a Woman (1958) as Himself .
43. The Barbarian and the Geisha (1958) as Townsend Harris .
44. Jet Pilot (1957) as Col. Jim Shannon .
45. Legend of the Lost (1957) as Joe January .
46. The Wings of Eagles (1957) as Frank W. “Spig” Wead .
47. The Conqueror (1956) as Temujin .
48. The Searchers (1956) as Ethan Edwards .
49. The Sea Chase (1955) as Karl Ehrlich .
50. Blood Alley (1955) as Tom Wilder .
51. The High and the Mighty (1954) as “Whistling” Dan Roman .
52. Hondo (1954) as Hondo Lane .
53. Island in the Sky (1953) as Capt. Dooley .
54. Trouble Along the Way (1953) as Steve Williams .
55. Big Jim McLain (1952) as Big Jim McLain .
56. The Quiet Man (1952) as Sean Thornton .
57. Operation Pacific (1951) as “Duke” Gifford .
58. Flying Leathernecks (1951) as Dan Kirby .
59. Rio Grande (1950) as Col. Kirby Yorke .
60. Sands of Iwo Jima (1949) as Sgt. Stryker .
61. 3 Godfathers (1949) as Robert Marmaduke Sangster Hightower .
62. The Fighting Kentuckian (1949) as John Breen .
63. She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949) as Capt. Nathan Brittles .
64. Fort Apache (1948) as Capt. Kirby York .
65. Red River (1948) as Thomas Dunson .
66. Wake of the Red Witch (1948) as Capt. Ralls .
67. Angel and the Badman (1947) as Quirt Evans .
68. Tycoon (1947) as Johnny [Munroe] .
69. Without Reservations (1946) as [Captain] Rusty [Thomas] .
70. They Were Expendable (1945) as Lt., J.G., “Rusty” Ryan .
71. Flame of Barbary Coast (1945) as Duke Fergus .
72. Back to Bataan (1945) as Colonel Joe Madden .
73. Dakota (1945) as John Devlin .
74. Tall in the Saddle (1944) as Rocklin .
75. The Fighting Seabees (1944) as Wedge Donovan .
76. In Old Oklahoma (1943) as Daniel Somers .
77. A Lady Takes a Chance (1943) as Duke Hudkins .
78. The Spoilers (1942) as [Roy] Glennister .
79. Flying Tigers (1942) as Jim Gordon .
80. Reap the Wild Wind (1942) as Captain Jack Stuart .
81. Lady for a Night (1942) as Jack Morgan .
82. In Old California (1942) as Tom Craig .
83. Pittsburgh (1942) as [Charles] “Pittsburgh” Markham [also known as “Charles Ellis”] .
84. Reunion in France (1942) as Pat Talbot .
85. A Man Betrayed (1941) as Lynn Hollister .
86. The Shepherd of the Hills (1941) as Young Matt [Matthews] .
87. Lady from Louisiana (1941) as John Reynolds .
88. Three Faces West (1940) as John [Phillips] .
89. The Long Voyage Home (1940) as Ole Olson .
90. Seven Sinners (1940) as [Lieutenant] Dan [Brent] .
91. Dark Command (1940) as Bob Seton .
92. New Frontier (1939) as Stony Brooke .
93. The Night Riders (1939) as Stony Brooke .
94. Allegheny Uprising (1939) as Jim Smith .
95. Three Texas Steers (1939) as Stony Brooke .
96. Wyoming Outlaw (1939) as Stony Brooke .
97. Stagecoach (1939) as Ringo Kid .
98. Overland Stage Raiders (1938) as Stony Brooke .
99. Pals of the Saddle (1938) as Stony Burke [also known as Ezeckial Saunders] .
100. Santa Fe Stampede (1938) as Stony Brooke .
101. Red River Range (1938) as Stony Brooke .
102. Born to the West (1937) as Dare Rudd .
103. Adventure’s End (1937) as Duke Slade .
104. California Straight Ahead (1937) as William “Biff” Smith .
105. Idol of the Crowds (1937) as Johnny Hanson .
106. I Cover the War (1937) as Bob Adams .
107. Sea Spoilers (1936) as Bob Randall .
108. The Lawless Nineties (1936) as John Tipton .
109. Conflict (1936) as Pat Glendon .
110. Winds of the Wasteland (1936) as Johnny Blair .
111. The Oregon Trail (1936) as Captain John Delmont .
112. The Lonely Trail (1936) as John Ashley .
113. King of the Pecos (1936) as John Clayborn, also known as John Clay .
114. Lawless Range (1935) as John Middleton/John Allen .
115. The New Frontier (1935) as John [Dawson] .
116. Westward Ho (1935) as John Wyatt .
117. Rainbow Valley (1935) as John Martin .
118. The Desert Trail (1935) as John Scott, also known as John Jones .
119. The Dawn Rider (1935) as John Mason .
120. Texas Terror (1935) as Sheriff John Higgins .
121. Paradise Canyon (1935) as John Wyatt .
122. The Man from Utah (1934) as John Weston .
123. ‘Neath the Arizona Skies (1934) as Chris Morrell .
124. The Lawless Frontier (1934) as John Tobin .
125. The Lucky Texan (1934) as Jerry Mason .
126. The Trail Beyond (1934) as Rod Drew .
127. The Star Packer (1934) as John Travers .
128. Randy Rides Alone (1934) as Randy Bowers .
129. West of the Divide (1934) as Ted Hayden, also known as Gat Ganns .
130. Blue Steel (1934) as John Carruthers .
131. Three Musketeers, The (1933)
132. College Coach (1933) as “Old boy himself .
133. Central Airport (1933) as Co-pilot .
134. Somewhere in Sonora (1933) as John Bishop .
135. Riders of Destiny (1933) as “Singin’ Sandy” [Saunders] .
136. Sagebrush Trail (1933) as John Brant .
137. Man from Monterey (1933) as Captain John Holmes .
138. The Telegraph Trail (1933) as John Trent .
139. His Private Secretary (1933) as Dick Wallace .
140. Baby Face (1933) as Jimmy McCoy .
141. The Life of Jimmy Dolan (1933) as Boxer .
142. Texas Cyclone (1932) as Steve Pickett .
143. Hurricane Express (1932)
144. Ride Him, Cowboy (1932) as John Drury .
145. The Big Stampede (1932) as John Steele .
146. Lady and Gent (1932) as Buzz Kinney .
147. Two Fisted Law (1932) as Duke .
148. Haunted Gold (1932) as John Mason .
149. Shadow of the Eagle, The (1932)
150. Range Feud (1931) as Clint Turner .
151. Arizona (1931) as Bob Denton .
152. Girls Demand Excitement (1931) as Peter Brooks .
153. Three Girls Lost (1931) as Gordon Wales .
154. Maker of Men (1931) as Dusty .
155. Men Without Women (1930) as .
156. The Big Trail (1930) as Breck Coleman .
157. Salute (1929) as .

PRODUTOR
158. Big Jake (1971) as Executive Producer.
159. The Alamo (1960) as Producer.
160. Legend of the Lost (1957) as Producer.
161. Blood Alley (1955) as Producer.
162. Track of the Cat (1954) as Producer.
163. The High and the Mighty (1954) as Producer.
164. Island in the Sky (1953) as Producer.
165. The Fighting Kentuckian (1949) as Producer.

DIVERSOS
166. Long John Silver (1955) as Costumes.
167. Hondo (1954) as Company.
168. Bullfighter and the Lady (1951) as Company.
169. Angel and the Badman (1947) as Company.
170. It’s Showtime (1976) as Himself.

PARTICIPAÇÃO ESPECIAL
171. Directed By John Ford (2006) as Himself.
172. Directed By John Ford (2006)
173. General Electric’s All-Star Anniversary (1978) as Host.
174. Swing Out, Sweet Land (1976) as Host.
175. Dick Cavett’s Backlot USA (1976) as Guest.
176. Bob Hope Special: Bob Hope on Campus (1975)
177. Bob Hope Special: A Quarter Century of Bob Hope on Television (1975)
178. Don Rickles Show, The (1975)
179. Glen Campbell Special: The Musical West, The (1974)
180. American Film Institute Salute to John Ford, The (1973)
181. The Men Who Made the Movies: Howard Hawks (1973)
182. Salute to Television’s 25th Anniversary, A (1972)
183. American West of John Ford, The (1971) as Narration.
184. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Jack Benny but Were Afraid to Ask (1971)
185. Super Comedy Bowl 1 (1971)
186. American West of John Ford, The (1971) as Host.
187. John Wayne (1962)

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Especialista em Cinema Clássico e Crítica Literária, é sobretudo uma curiosa. Fundadora do site Cinemaclássico, estuda o cinema desde 2002. Ama Charles Chaplin, Raj Kapoor e navega constantemente em filmes de todo o mundo.